Potentized Cina reduces root-knot nematode in infestation of cucumber and the antinematode effect is transmitted through water.
Sukul NC, Chakraborty I, Sukul A
Background: Root-knot nematodes belonging to Meloidogyne incognita are
responsible for substantial loss in yield of vegetable crops all over the world.
Chemical nematicides are expensive, cause environmental pollution and leave toxic
residues in crops.Plant substances provide safe alternative [1, 2].Cina is a plant
origin. In a series of experiments we have demonstrated that potentized Cina, a
homeopathic remedy for worm or nematode infection in man, could significantly
reduced root-knot nematode infection in several species of crops [3, 4]. We have
also demonstrated that the effect of a homeopathic potency could be transferred
from one plant to another through water .
Objectives: (i)To see whether Cina 200 CH could reduce root-knot disease of
cucumber; (ii) To see whether the antinematode effect of Cina could be transferred
from one plant to another through water.
Materials and methods: Aseptically germinated seeds of cucumber, Cucumis sativus
L were grown in earthen pots at one seed per pot containing a mixture of clay soil
and composed manure (2:1, w/w), which was treated previously with boiling water to
remove any plant pathogens. The pots were divided into groups (10 pots per group):
(i) uninoculated untreated, (ii) inoculated untreated, (iii) inoculated and treated with
Cina 200 CH, (iv) inoculated and treated indirectly by connection with wet cotton
threads to group (iii) and (v) inoculated and treated with Ethanol 200 CH. Groups (ii),
(iii), (iv) and (v) were inoculated with the second stage larvae of Meloidogyne
incognita when the plants were at six leave stage. Just before inoculation plants of
group (iii) and (iv) were connected leaf by leaf by wet cotton threads encased in
polythene tubes. Then plants of group (iii) were directly pretreated by foliar spray
with Cina 200 CH diluted with distilled water (1:500). Two days after inoculation
plants of group (iii) were treated again with Cina 200 CH in a similar way. After a
couple of weeks all the plants were harvested and the following parameters were
measured: shoot length, shoot weight, root length, root weight, numbers of leaves
per plant, leaf area, root gall number per plant, nematode population in roots and
rhizospheric soil, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf sugar, protein content and root protein
Results: All the data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by t-test. Leaf
area and chlorophyll content were significantly higher (p<0.01) with the treated
groups direct and connected, than with the inoculated untreated group. Root gall
number, nematode population in roots and root protein content were significantly
lower (p<0.01) with the treated groups than with the inoculated untreated group.
Ethanol 200 CH treated group did not show any significant difference from the
inoculated untreated group.
Discussion: Nematode parasites are highly resistant to many chemicals. Potentized
Cina did not affect the parasites directly. The drug might have induced natural
defence reponses in the treated plants. The work further demonstrates that water
could carry the molecular memory of the potentized Cina and thus influence the
connected plants. Cina 200 CH is an eco-friendly, in expensive and effective drug
against root-knot nematodes.
Conclusion: Cina 200 CH reduces root-knot nematode infestation of cucumber.
Water serves as a carrier of information of the drug effect from one plant to another.
Link to abstract/paper:
Research papers concerning agrohomeopathy, homeopathy (if relevant), potentised BD remedies and so forth.