Reproducibility of effects of homeopathically potentised gibberellic acid on the growth of Lemna gibba L. in a randomised and blinded bioassay
Vera Majewsky, Claudia Scherr, Sebastian Patrick Arlt, Jonas Kiener, Kristina Frrokaj,Tobias Schindler, Peter Klocke and Stephan Baumgartner
Background: Reproducibility of basic research investigations in homeopathy is challenging.
This study investigated if formerly observed effects of homeopathically potentised
gibberellic acid (GA3) on growth of duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) were reproducible.
Methods: Duckweed was grown in potencies (14xe30x) ofGA3 and one time succussed
and unsuccussed water controls. Outcome parameter area-related growth rate was
determined by a computerised image analysis system. Three series including five independent
blinded and randomised potency experiments (PE) each were carried out. System
stability was controlled by three series of five systematic negative control (SNC)
experiments. Gibbosity (a specific growth state of L. gibba) was investigated as possibly
essential factor for reactivity of L. gibba towards potentised GA3 in one series of potency
and SNC experiments, respectively.
Results: Only in the third series with gibbous L. gibba L. we observed a significant effect
(p = 0.009, F-test) of the homeopathic treatment. However, growth rate increased in
contrast to the former study, and most biologically active potency levels differed. Variability
in PE was lower than in SNC experiments. The stability of the experimental system
was verified by the SNC experiments.
Conclusions: Gibbosity seems to be a necessary condition for reactivity of L. gibba to
potentised GA3. Further still unknown conditions seem to govern effect direction and
the pattern of active and inactive potency levels. When designing new reproducibility
studies, the physiological state of the test organism must be considered. Variability
might be an interesting parameter to investigate effects of homeopathic remedies in
basic research. Homeopathy (2014) 103, 113e126.
Keywords: Homeopathy; Potentisation; Ultra high dilution; Gibberellic acid;
Research papers concerning agrohomeopathy, homeopathy (if relevant), potentised BD remedies and so forth.