Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with abiotically stressed plants
Tim J€ager, Claudia Scherr, Devika Shah, Vera Majewsky, Lucietta Betti, Grazia Trebbi, Leoni Bonamin, Ana Paula Sim~oes-W€ust, Ursula Wolf, Meinhard Simon, Peter Heusser and Stephan Baumgartner
Background: Experimental research on the effects of homeopathic treatments on
impaired plants was last reviewed in 1990.
Objectives: To compile a systematic review of the existing literature on basic research
in homeopathy with abiotically stressed plants using predefined criteria.
Methods: The literature search was carried out on publications that reported experiments
on homeopathy using abiotically stressedwhole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells
from 1920 to 2010. Outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically
evaluated. Using of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) we identified those
publications that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS ‡ 5). A further
evaluation was based on the use of adequate controls to investigate specific effects of
homeopathic preparations and on the use of systematic negative control experiments.
Results: A total of 34 publications with abiotically stressed plants was identified, published
between 1965 and 2010. The 34 publications described a total of 37 experimental
studies. Twenty-two studies included statistics, 13 had a MIS ‡ 5, 8 were identified with
adequate controls and 4 with negative control experiments. Significant and reproducible
effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond
Avogadro’s number. One experimental model was independently assessed by another
research team and yielded inverted results compared to the original trial.
Conclusions: Abiotically stressed plant models seem to be a useful approach to investigate
homeopathic basic research questions, but more experimentation and especially
more independent replication trials are needed. Systematic negative control experiments
should be implemented on a routine basis to exclude false-positive results. Homeopathy
(2011) 100, 275e287.
Keywords: Review;Basic research;Homeopathy;Potentisation;Impaired plants;Noxa
Research papers concerning agrohomeopathy, homeopathy (if relevant), potentised BD remedies and so forth.