http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Ad ... ne.0052609
In South Africa, wine grapes are produced using a range of farming methods from conventional to biodynamic farming. The majority of grapes are produced through what can be described as an intermediate scheme, the Integrated Production of Wine (IPW), which was established by the South African wine industry in 1998 . This scheme embraces a more environmentally friendly farming system, including careful monitoring and understanding of diseases resulting in reduced input of biocides in the vineyard when compared with conventional farming . The system also promotes the use of hay mulches and oats cover crops to improve soil moisture and fertility, as well as bait, ducks and other biocontrol strategies for pest control. However, integrated farming systems are not fully codified into rules, and do not have a regulated certification system . In contrast, biodynamic farming is a specialised type of organic farming which prohibits any use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides as stipulated under the Demeter regulations . In addition, biodynamic farming includes the use of specific fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays which are applied into the soil in animal organs e.g. bladder and cow horn .
Organic and biodynamic farming systems have been shown to enhance soil fertility and increase biodiversity –. In wheat plantations, microbial diversity has been found to be highest in biodynamic areas, followed by organically farmed and finally conventional plantations . Although organic and biodynamic systems are globally becoming of increasing economic interest to wine producers, their impact on general vineyard health and wine quality has been the subject of relatively few studies. In particular, the impact of these practices on the vineyard ecosystem (including microbial diversity) is poorly understood.
The current study was aimed at evaluating microbial diversity associated with grapes obtained from conventional, biodynamic and integrated pest management vineyards, with a focus on epiphytic yeasts. The study also appears to be the first to assess intra-vineyard variability of microbial diversity. The data confirm previous results (on other crops) that biodynamic farming leads to a higher microbial diversity. It also shows that this diversity is unevenly distributed within individual vineyards, thus highlighting the importance of sampling multiple locations in the vineyard to assess the biodiversity of the ecosystem. From a wine making perspective, the data suggest that spatial fluctuations in microbial diversity might have a significant impact on downstream processes and analyses.